A scientist has forwarded the notion that Jupiter's moons were formed from dust in disks. Several astronomers have come up with a new hypothesis that originated from the formation of exoplanets that might be the answer to how the Jovian moons came to be according to IopScience.
Researcher Konstantin Batygin confirmed in Astronomy that simulations were closer than expected to reality, and on a second run of the simulations the realization set it, it might be correct.
Scientists describe how the moons of Jupiter were formed from dust orbiting the plant. They were once small ice balls, from the proto formation of the solar system until they became what they are now. When the moons were large and solid, they were pulled in by gravity.
A new theory anyone?
There were prior attempts to find out where all planets and moon coalesced from, especially in the solar system. Most of these hypotheses will not pan out when tried on other exoplanet systems that might have formed from these ideas on how they were created.
Exoplanetary systems give an idea of the way planets can form, from the initial theories to the newer ones, said Batygin. Discoveries in the formation of heavenly bodies have given new insight for scientists looking for answers.
He added that most of the updated knowledge needs to be assessed to get clearer data on these processes of how moons form.
A current model is twenty years old for moon formation, with big changes in astronomical science. He says that little is known how the icy moons of were formed till know.
Forming the moons of Jupiter
Batygin and Alessandro Morbidelli discussed how Jupiter got its moons.
Based on their theory, proto-Jupiter had a feature it lost today. When it was just formed, there was a disk made of gas or a circumplanetary disk defined by Eureka Alert. The dust would accrete or becomes dust trap, capturing all dust during proto-formation. Clumping of the dust would result in dust balls later.
Continual building up of material in the icy disk will slowly accrete into large formations between particles. Soon after there will be 'satellitesimals' that are 64 miles wide. Clumping material on the ice balls get big enough called an embryo moon that becomes a moon later.
When the satellite gets big enough, it leaves the spiral wake and gets drawn in as Jupiter's gravity attracts it. Soon the young will go out of the feeding zone and moves towards where they are.
This process continues until all moons of Jupiter are in the right place. The Io and Europa moons in the inner side are 6000 years old, and Ganymede is 30,000 years old, one of the oldest Jovial.
Forming icy Callisto and getting more solid, the sun caused evaporation of the proto gas in Jupiter's disk. It took about 50,000 years to build mass and 9 million before it became whole.
Nothing is new, stressed Batygin and new ideas show innovations on how moons are formed in a dust trap.They have been working in the hypothesis since 2018, and last year all the data confirmed their calculations.
It may be answered to how the moons of Jupiter coalesced and how dust accreted to form them.