NASA's Hubble Space Telescope and new observation method, have detected dark matter clumps that was not noticed till now. Discovering these clumps has proven one prediction of the cold dark matter theory.
Galaxies are formed and are supported by clouds of dark matter, that is the structure of the universe. These cold dark matter particles are cold and move slowly with a mass greater than the milky way.
Data from Hubble gives clues how it reacts with the dark matter is expected to be according to calculations.
The entire universe is made up of dark matter (invisible) that holds it together. Without it, everything falls apart. Astronomers predict its existence because it produces gravitons that creates gravity in the universe. Stars are relatively few in dark matter clumps because few stars are found there.
Dark matter is plentiful in large to medium galaxies wherein smaller clumps, called warm dark matter, have been recently found. These warm dark matter move faster compared to cold matter.
According to Anna Nierenberg of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, they have found proof of its existence using predictions and statistics with Hubble's images. All these contribute to a more solid theory that thought of before.
Searching for dark matter is done by using quasars that were near black holes. It measures the light coming from oxygen and neon gas that envelope the out rim of black holes. This is like nifying lens to detect clumps of dark matter.
By this method, clumps were discovered in the line of sight (telescope's) through this gravity lens. All the dark matter equals 1/10,000th to 1/100,000th times the Milky Way's dark halo around it. Chances of small galaxies are slim in the galactic halo and will be harder to find embedded stars there too.
All eight quasars and galaxies were all linear for the gravitational lensing, had for images of the quasar. The four images were needed for analysis of the galaxies and quasar.
Indicators of the presence of dark matter clumps change the brightness and location of the quasar image. Looking at how they look with or without gravity lensing, to see how much dark matter is there. Analyzing the data to recreate the images in full clarity with varied techniques.
In the gravitational lens, some cracks are small dark matter clumps seen through it. These clumps are what alters the image that is produced by Hubble. When the images are analyzed and magnified by digital imaging of the quasars.
The Wide Field Camera 3 captures the light from quasars, light is analyzed with spectroscopy. Light emissions from quasars are best seen in infrared light, than any other spectrum. With Hubble out in orbit, that has the best resolution than telescopes on earth.
Using ground-based surveys such as the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and Dark Energy Survey that made the clarity of the maps better and three -dimensional too. These quasars are 10 billion light-years from Earth, galaxies in the front are 2 billion light-years away.
Ana Nierenberg explained that by detecting dark matter clumps, that is understood by how much there is in the universe. Though the images show the possible existence of dark matter, there is no answer yet how it really works and if it is there.