When the first manned space flight was accomplished, next came the Apollo missions that showed the moon was reachable.
In 1967, the U.S. and other nations signed an accord to govern conduct in space for all nations called the Outer Space Treaty with Artemis Treaty that governs how the moon will be regarded by Earth Nations.
As technology gets more advanced, so is the ability for advanced nations to reach space, and soon the moon. The first treaty in 1967 was the Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, including the moon and other celestial bodies. This served as the initial framework. This new treaty expounded further on it. The moon law adds another to the Outer Space Treaty.
On October 13, NASA said the new law would guide nations in the exploitation of Mars and the moon. This is all about cooperation between eight partner nations that will work together to reach the moon and Mars as co-equals in the venture.
The Initial goal is to get the first woman and man on the moon via the NASA Artemis program by 2024. Countries officially included as initial members are the United Kingdom, Australia, Canada, Japan, Luxembourg, the United Arab Emirates, and Italy.
Other nations can join with the proviso of following the pact and giving whatever is needed, reported Time.
According to Mike Gold, NASA's acting administrator for the project, it was a joint effort by nations to develop what is included in the accords. When it comes to multinational endeavors in space, there should be governing agreements to lessen conflict.
NASA deputy administrator Jim Morhard added that it is in everyone's interest to add those willing to be part of it.
During the Apollo mission, the U.S. and Soviet Union were competing in a space race during the Cold War era. Years later, the Americans, Russians, and other nations have come together to construct the International Space Station (ISS). This is the start of cooperation in space for more than one entity.
One aspect of space exploration is the equipment needed to keep it going. Development of reusable components that are not one-time use like the older spacecraft and components.
NASA projects a mini space station called the Gateway, that stays in the moon's orbit like the ISS in Earth's. It will be a point where astronauts travel to the surface of the moon and back to Gateway. Gateway will be an open-source for all nations to modules and spacecraft as well. This will be the locus where all nations will cooperate.
Gold said that all participants would be part of its development and interoperability to integrate all nations.
For a peaceful coexistence in the Gateway space station, there is a set of rules that should be followed to prevent disagreements, especially when it comes to operations on the moon and sharing of all discoveries for all co-partners.
Examples of such transgression are no interference or claim-jumping by one nation over another's digs. Another is to respect the sites of the first moon landing as heritage sites.
Gold says that the Artemis Accords should be followed to reach peace and prosperity. Not turn the moon into another homeworld.